2019-05-21

Translation: Turkey in the structure of a multipolar world

by Alexander Dugin


Today, it is important for all nations, in particular Turks, to understand the essence of a multipolar world that a modern Russia is building today. Multipolarity and geopolitics - stemming from it - are what will be the main theme of the strategic thinking of the 21st century. Multipolarity is in a state of emergence. This is not an established model, but only a movement in a certain direction. Like any phenomenon in history, multipolarity can either happen or not happen. This is not fatality, it is an opportunity, and whether it is realized depends on all countries and peoples.

It is the construction of a multipolar world that is the main key to understanding the policies pursued by modern Russia in the era of Vladimir Putin. And although we could say that this strategy is an expression of Eurasianism, nevertheless the Eurasianism itself in the 21st century has changed significantly and needs new thinking. Moreover, it is only in the context of multipolarity that Eurasianism gains its meaning. Therefore, it is worthwhile in this preface to dwell on multipolarity.

Multipolarity is fundamentally different from:

  • The Westphalian system, based on the recognition of the absolute sovereignty of each individual nation-state;
  • The bipolar system prevailing in the era of the Cold War;
  • The unipolar world spontaneously emerged after the fall of the USSR and the countries of the socialist camp.

The Westphalian world was formed after 1648 and was built on the principle of nation states. By the twentieth century, and especially at the end of the First World War, it became obvious that individual national states of Europe, and especially other parts of the world, are not able to defend their sovereignty alone. This led initially to the formation of three blocks - capitalist, socialist and fascist, the culmination of which was World War II. After the defeat of the Axis countries, a bipolar world emerged, where only two superpowers possessed genuine geopolitical sovereignty - the United States and the USSR, while the rest of the countries were forced to join either one or the other camp. According to this logic, Turkey turned out to be in NATO, on the side of the capitalist West.

The beginning of globalism

After the fall of the USSR and the countries of the Warsaw Pact, a unipolar world took shape, where the West came close to sole world domination. This was the beginning of globalism as a planetary ideology. Fukuyama proclaimed the thesis about the “end of history”, that is, the total victory of the West over all others. Genuine sovereignty was the only monopoly of the United States and its allies.

However, almost immediately after such a model actually took shape, opposing tendencies began to be felt. They were expressed in the rise of the Islamic world, which rejects the sole hegemony of the West, in the growth of independent China and India, as independent civilizations. Finally, the prerequisites for multipolarity were formed after the terrorist acts of 9/11, which led to the actual war of the United States and its allies against Islamic states, as well as due to the sharp rise of China and the restoration of Putin’s independent policy and sovereignty in Russia. So the Islamic countries, China and Putin’s Russia challenged unipolarity. Huntington, in anticipation of such a turn of events, in the early 1990s began talking about a “clash of civilizations”, which became a fact in the 2000s. However, the return of civilizations to history did not mean the inevitable clash between them.

The concept of civilization

The concept of civilization is the most important thing for deciphering multipolarity. This is not a national state (as in the Westphalian system), and not a political ideology (as in a bipolar world), and not all of humanity (as in theories of globalists). Civilization is a large space that needs to be integrated. In the case of Russia, this is Eurasia, in the case of China, this country itself, as well as the region, its neighboring peoples and states. The Islamic world is a civilization, although inside it there can be separate large spaces - Shiite, Turkic, Arabic, Malay, etc.

Now it is clear what Eurasianism is: the unification of a large space around Russia. But this is Eurasianism in the narrow sense. The Turkish version of Eurasianism can be described as the restoration of the unity of the Turkic world or some kind of analogue of the Ottoman Empire. Greater Eurasia is built on the strategic alliance of Russia and China. The Eurasian Triangle - the axis of Moscow-Ankara-Tehran. The Chinese project of the OBOR Initiative is even more extensive and involves the economic and transport integration of the entire Eurasian continent, including Europe. But all projects of multipolarity and different versions of Eurasianism necessarily reject the West’s monopoly on hegemony and the universalism of their values. Therefore, all multi-polar projects are oriented against unipolarity and liberal globalism. With all the differences of Islamic, Chinese, Russian or Indian cultures are all completely distinctive and sharply differ even more from Western individualism, hyper-capitalism (turbo-capitalism), the advancement of the LGBT community and a radically secular-atheistic value system. This is the context of a multipolar world.

West divided in two

The West and globalists, however, are not going to give in without a fight, despite the fact that protests against globalism are growing in the West itself. We see this in the Trump phenomenon itself and in the wave of populism (right and left) in Europe. Therefore, it is no longer possible to reduce everything to the dualism of the West against the Rest, as Huntington formulated this problem. The West itself is divided in two: some continue to leave unipolarity and globalism, others see the West as one of the civilizations along with others, designed to preserve their identity and culture, preserving it from artificial mixing. Such an analysis shows that the movement towards multipolarity is growing, and the unipolar world is gradually collapsing, although it is still quite strong.

A bright symbol of unipolarity and globalism is multibillionaire George Soros, the sponsor of color revolutions, or Hillary Clinton, who shamefully lost her previous choice to Trump just because of the persistent upholding of classical liberal-globalist ideology rejected by the majority of Americans.

It now remains to find out: what is the place of Turkey in a multipolar world? This is an open question. On the one hand, Turkey remains a member of NATO and part of the western strategic structure. This is the inertia of the Cold War and the bipolar world. It is less and less justified, since there is practically no threat from modern Russia to Turkey, and the United States, on the contrary, is dissatisfied with Turkey’s desire to increase its sovereignty, which is clearly seen in Erdogan’s policy. In addition, the Turkish society is becoming more and more aware of the contradiction between globalist liberal ideology and Islamic values. Hence the logical conclusion: the place of Turkey in the camp of supporters of a multipolar world.

The role of Turkey in a multipolar world

But being an Islamic country, Turkey is different from both the Arab and Iranian culture. Turkey is a distinctive large space that combines several traditions - the Turkic states of Turan, starting with the First Turkic Kaganate and the Blue Horde, the Islamic Caliphate, the Byzantine Empire. The intersection of these traditions and created historical Turkey.

Therefore, in the context of multipolarity, Turkey can play a crucial role, since it partly belongs to the Islamic civilization, partly Eurasian, and partly European. This opens up wide opportunities for Ankara and allows it to become one of the main poles of the Islamic world - first of all, in its Sunni component. At the same time, the Turkish-Russian alliance would allow Turkey to significantly strengthen its position in the face of the West and in the face of other Islamic countries. So the coordination of positions with Russia during the Syrian conflict showed what can be achieved by both countries, if they act in concert and together. Therefore, a multipolar world for Turkey is a chance.

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